Ukrainian and Russian negotiators have met four times since the start of Russia’s invasion.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov weighed in on the possibility of Ukraine agreeing to neutral status during a media event in Moscow on Saturday.
“After our operation in Ukraine ends, and I hope its ends with a signing of a comprehensive agreement on the issues I mentioned — security issues, Ukraine’s neutral status with the guarantees of its security as (Putin), a couple of months ago as I recall, commented at a news conference on our initiative of non-expansion of NATO, he said we understood every country needs guarantees of its security,” said Lavrov.
The Biden administration still sees no indication that Putin is willing or ready to deescalate the conflict — making it difficult for US officials to be optimistic about the current state of negotiations, one source familiar with the situation said.
But at the same time, this source also said that the US is not pressuring Ukraine to accept or reject specific concessions and is not involved in the negotiation process.
CNN has reached out to the US National Security Council for comment but hasn’t received a response.
Some of the terms Ukraine has said it may be willing to consider seem more feasible than others, but at the end of the day, NATO countries are still skeptical of Russia’s engagement.
“It is very close hold, and no one really knows what’s going on,” the European defense official said. “Ukraine’s positions haven’t changed — ceasefire, withdrawal of troops and security guarantees.”
“Anyone who says they know something about the status of the talks, (they) really don’t,” the official added.
“The first is Ukraine’s neutrality,” Kalin said in an interview with the Turkish newspaper Hurriyet published Saturday, adding that would mean Ukraine agreeing to not become a NATO member. “Second, disarmament and mutual security guarantees in the context of the Austrian model. Third, the process that the Russian side refers to as ‘de-Nazification.’ Fourth, removing obstacles to the widespread use of Russian language in Ukraine. It is understood that some progress has been made in the first four articles of the ongoing negotiations. It is too early to say that there is full agreement or that an agreement is about to be signed.”
“If a point is reached in the first four articles and an agreement is reached, there can be a discussion at the leaders’ level regarding the fifth and sixth articles,” Kalin said in the interview, adding that if the negotiations take place, “it may be possible to reach an agreement and end the war.”
“This is for the Ukrainians themselves to decide what is too much for them. It is not our decision on that and we support their efforts. So I can’t preview what they will end up coming up in their negotiations with the Russians,” she told CNN’s Jake Tapper on “State of the Union.”
Asked by Tapper again, if the US would recognize Crimea or Donbas as a part of Russia should that be a part of the agreement, Thomas-Greenfield again declined to answer.
“I can’t say that at the moment. We certainly have not recognized the independent Donbas regions just declared as independent. But I can’t review how we will respond to a negotiated settlement that the Ukrainians come up with the Russians to save the lives of their own people.”
The lack of clarity about the status of negotiations is raising additional questions about what Ukraine is willing to agree to and how Russia’s demands would be implemented if they ultimately reach some sort of agreement.
“Any compromises related to our territorial integrity and our sovereignty and the Ukrainian people have spoken about it, they have not greeted Russian soldiers with a bunch of flowers, they have greeted them with bravery, they have greeted them with weapons in their hands,” he told CNN’s Zakaria when asked about the Russian demands.
“You cannot just make a president of another country to recognize anything by the use of force,” he added.
Many details of Russia’s demands, whether Ukraine would accept them and how Ukraine would even implement them remain unclear, a senior NATO official said. That includes what it would mean for Ukraine to adopt a “neutral” status with the West — a possibility that one congressional source told CNN has caused heartburn for US officials.
“Does that mean they forswear NATO? Does that mean they forswear the (European Union)? Can they not have any other external assistance?” the NATO official said. “My sense is it’s going to be a very complex negotiation.”
A European diplomat told CNN last week that if Ukraine were to adopt a neutrality policy and also demilitarize, it would effectively be a surrender — calling such a move “Moscow-style neutrality.”
The Kremlin has floated the notion that Kyiv could adopt a Swedish or Austrian neutrality policy. However, a Swedish diplomat dismissed the notion of Swedish neutrality, saying the idea that their country is neutral is not true and attempts to try to frame it as such are consistent with longstanding Russian efforts to misrepresent Sweden’s national security policy.
“Whenever the term ‘Austrian neutrality’ comes up, it has to be remembered that this is a model of an armed neutrality. This form of neutrality doesn’t mean that a country lies down its arms and hopes that nobody attacks it. It’s a neutrality where a country — at least in theory — is armed and ready to defend itself against all foreign belligerents,” said Martin Weiss, Austria’s ambassador to the US.
“I think we just need to be mindful that the Russians almost certainly will seek to continue to resupply and will probably continue to fight, up until the time that things are agreed,” the official said. “Whatever the solution, if there’s diplomatic resolution and there’s an agreement, it has to be clear and binding. And it has to be monitorable. … People will be looking to ensure that the Russians end the war conclusively. And there isn’t some lingering threat that remains.”
While the source familiar with the Biden administration’s view of the talks told CNN that some of the terms Ukraine has said it may be willing to consider seem more feasible than others, the source also indicated that the US will be wary of Russia’s intentions until Putin shows some signs that he is ready to deescalate.
CNN’s Kylie Atwood, Jennifer Hansler and Jasmine Wright contributed to this report